Email This Story :
Report of Shwe Mann’s visit to North Korea
Report by the Burmese Military High-Level Representatives, Led by the Member of the State Peace and Development Council and Chief of Coordination (Army, Navy, Air Force) General Thura Shwe Mann, that Went on an Observation Trip to the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and People’s Republic of China from (21) November 2008 to (2) December 2008
(Translated by Pascal Khu Thwe)
1. With invitations from Chief of General Staff General Kim Gyok Sik, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and from General Chen Bingde, member of the Central Commission of the Defense Ministry and PLA Chief of Staff, People’s Republic of China, a group of high-level representatives from the Burmese army, led by General Thura Shweman, member of the State Peace and Development Council, Chief of Coordination (Army, Navy, Air Force), left for People’s Republic of China, on a special plane, on (11-21-2008) from Naypyidaw Airport.
2. On (11-22-2008), they left People’s Republic of China for the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea by plane and did some observations there until (11-29-2008) and returned to People’s Republic of China on (11-29-2008).
3. The group of high-level Burmese army representatives did some observations in People’s Republic of China starting (11-29-2008) and returned to Burma on the evening of (12-2-2008).
4. To analyze the observations of the armies in People’s Democratic Republic of Korea and People’s Republic of China to observe the army and to use the observations to strengthen Burmese army to be modern and skilful, patriotic army.
Members of the Observation Group
5. The following are the members:
(a) Army 11534
General Thura Shweman
Chief of Coordination (Army, Navy, Air Force) Group Leader
(b) Army 13875
Deputy General Myint Hlaing
Chief Officer, Office of the Air Defense Chief Officer Member
(c) Army 14799
Major General Hla Htay Win
Chief Officer, Office of the Military Training Officer Member
(d) Air Force 1754
Major General Khin Aung Myint
Chief of Staff, Ka-Ka (Air Force) Member
(e) Army 15421
Major General Thein Htay
Deputy Chief Officer of Defense Materials Production, Ka-Ka Production Member
(f) Army 13066
Major General Mya Win
Director, Ka-Ka-Ma Member
(g) Army 13106
Brigadier Hla Myint
(h) Army 13073
Brigadier Kyaw Nyunt
Director, Defense Communications Member
(i) Army 15448
Brigadier Nyan Tun
Director, Ka-Ka-Ya Member
(j) Navy 1287
Colonel Tin Aung San
General Staff Colonel, Defense Navy Member
(k) Army 17648
Colonel Htin Kyaw Thu
General Staff Colonel, Defense Army Admin Member
(l) Army 19559
Deputy Colonel Myint Maw
Director of General Staff (first class), Defense (Army) Operation Member
(m) Army 32298
Captain Aung Ko Win
Office of Chief of Staff (Army) Member
(n) Army 30588
Captain Thein Naing Soe
Military Science and Technology Research Department Member
(o) Army 36377
Captain Khin Maung Myint
Institute of Military Technology Member
(p) Army 30861
Captain Ko Ko Maung
No. (2) Military Hospital (1000 beds) Member
(q) Army 33267
Captain Hpyo Min Kyi
Office of the Military Training Chief Officer Member
Daily Activities on the Trip
(a) Left Naypyidaw Airport at 13:15 Burma Standard Time on a special plane, ATR 72.
(b) Arrived at Kunming, China, at 16:50 China Standard Time, and U Myo Tint, military Attache from the Union of Myanmar, welcomed the team at the Kunming International Airport.
(c) The group was welcomed at the Best Business Thermal Beauty Hotel at the Kunming Airport by Major General Li Qing Dai, Deputy Chief of Military Region, Yunnan military zone, from PLA. Chief of Coordination General Thura Shweman (Army, Navy, Air Force) had a meeting with Major General Li Qing Dai at the hotel’s reception room, and the Burmese representatives attended the meeting.
(d) At 18:00, at the same hotel, Major Li Qing Dai hosted a dinner for the Burmese military representatives.
(e) At 21:20 local time, the group left Kunming International Airport on China Southern Airline CZ 6160 and arrived in Beijing at 23:40. Burmese Ambassador U Thein Lwin, Military Attache Colonel Tint Way and General Jia Xiaoning, Deputy Director General of foreign Affairs Office (FAO) of the People’s Liberation Army of China and Director of Bureau of Asia Affairs welcomed the group, and the group spent the night at Kuntai Royal Hotel in Beijing.
(a) At 12:40 local time, the group left the Beijing International Airport on Korean Airline JS-153 and arrived at the Pyongyang Airport, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, at 14:45 local time. At the Pyongyang Airport, Korean People’s Army – KPA Defense Industry Deputy Minister General Kim Tok Il and authorities came to welcome the group, and the group continued on to the State Guest House, Pyongyang.
(b) At 18:15 local time, in the Defense Reception Room, Pyongyang, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, General Shweman, Chief of Coordination (Army, Navy, Air Force), leader of the Burmese military high-level, friendship representatives and Chief of General Staff General Kim Gyok Sik, Korean People’s Army, had a meeting and exchanged views. All the members of the representatives from Burma and authorities from the KPA attended the meeting. At the end of the meeting, the two leaders exchanged gifts.
(c) At 18:45 local time, at the defense ministry dinner reception room, Chief of General Staff General Kim Gyok Sik, KPA, hosted a dinner, and the representatives lead by leader of the group from Burmese military, General Thura Shweman, Chief of Coordination (Army, Navy, Air Force) and authorities from KPA. Before the dinner started, leaders from the two sides greeted each other, said prayers and shared loving kindness.
(a) At 08:30 local time, the group went to the Kumsusan Memorial Palace in Pyongyang (mausoleum of the deceased leader of the country Kim Il Sung) to pay respect, and the officials welcomed and took the group on a tour.
(b) At 09:30 local time, the group went to the Model of Command Post (Command Control System and National Air Defense Command System – PLUTO – 4S) in Pyongyang, and directors Jo Kong Mo and Kon Myong gave a tour, and the group asked questions.
(c) At 15:00 local time, the group went to Mansudae native Home, Tower of Juche Idea and Arch of Triumph, and the authorities concerned gave the tour.
(a) At 08:30 local time, the group went to West Sea Barrage near Nampo City, and the authorities concerned welcomed the group and gave a tour.
(b) At 09:50 local time, the group went to KPA Naval Unit, and the Vice Admiral and Captain Kim Khan Son welcomed the group, and the authorities concerned gave a tour.
(c) From 16:00 until 17:10 local time, at the Korea People’s Army (KPA) Defense Ministry meeting hall, leader of the Burmese military high-level representatives, Chief of Coordination (Army, Navy, Air Force) General Shweman and Chief of General Staff General Kim Gyok Sik from KPA had an extensive meeting and exchanged views. Members from the two countries attended the meeting.
(a) From 09:30 until 10:45 local time, the group went on a tour to the KPA Air Force Unit. General Kim Kum Su and authorities welcomed the group, and the authorities concerned took the group on a tour.
(b) From 15:15 until 16:10 local time, the group went on a tour to KPA Tank Unit. Tank Brigade Commander Senior Colonel Kim Ton Yong welcomed the group, and the authorities concerned took the group on a tour.
(a) From 10:00 until 10:45 local time, the group went on a tour to the Anti-Aircraft Unit. Second in Chief major General Ryujoing Mu welcomed the group, and the authorities concerned took the group on a tour.
(b) From 11:00 until 11:35 local time, the group went on a tour to the KPA Special Army Unit. Senior Colonel Li yun Hwan welcomed the group, and the group observed the self-defense and combat skills of the members of the army.
(c) From 14:30 until 15:45 local time, the group went to Kim Il Sung Military University on a tour. Commandant Genral Roy Chun Sok welcomed the group, who laid a wreath in front of Kim Il Sung’s image and paid respect. Then the group went to the Military Ideology Research Center under the university. Colonel Mum Ri Pok welcomed them, and the authorities concerned took the group on a tour.
(d) From 16:00 until 17:25 local time, the group went on a tour to the Women Military Troop Anti-aircraft Company in Pyongyang. Captain Young Chong Shin from the Women’s Troop welcomed the group, and the group went and observed the women military troop’s boarding and lodging places and demonstrations of air defense battle with 14.5 mm AA gun. After that, the women military troop entertained the high-level Burmese military representatives with their music band and their singing.
(e) At 16:10 local time, the signing ceremony between the Burmese military and the KPA was held at the defense ministry hall. General Shweman, Chief of Coordination (Army, Navy, Air Force) signed from Burma’s side, and Chief of General Staff General Kim gyok Sik signed from the KPA’s side and exchanged the MoU.
(a) At 09:30 local time, the group went to the women military unit in Tackwan. Authorities concerned welcomed the group, and the women military unit demonstrated air defense exercises.
(b) From 09:45 until 10:15 local time, the group went to AA gun Ammunition Factory. Factory Director Kim Chi Up welcomed the group, which had a tour of the factory.
(c) From 10:25 until 11:15 local time, the group went on a tour to Anti-Tank Laser-beam Guidance Missile Factory. Factory Director Ri gong Sik welcomed the group, which had a tour of the factory and demonstrations of missile launching.
(d) From 11:30 until 12:30 local time, the group went on a tour to the Radar Factory and was welcomed by the factory director Kang Man Su. Then the group went on a tour to Igla factory and was welcomed by the factory’s Chief Engineer Li Tae Song.
(e) At 13:50 local time, the group had lunch at the Myohyang San Htel’s Revolving Restaurant, Myohyang.
(f) From 16:15 until 17:50 local time, the group went on a tour to the International Friendship Exhibition Hall on Myohyang Hill. The group was welcomed by the authorities at the museum. The group observed the gifts sent by international leaders on display in two museums.
(a) From 09:05 until 10:10 local time, the group went to Surface to Surface Missile (SCUD Missile) Factory and was welcomed by the Director Kim Su Gil. The group observed in detail how missiles were produced in the factory.
(b) From 10:30 until 11:20 local time, the group went to observe the building of underground train in Pyongyang and was welcomed by the authorities concerned. The group then rode the underground train.
(c) From 14:30 until 15:30 local time, the group was given a tour by the authorities concerned at the Memorial Exhibition for Victorious Fatherland Liberation War and (PUEBLO) Spy-Ship.
(d) At 15:40 local time, the group went to Kim Il Sung University and was welcomed and given a tour by the authorities concerned.
(e) At 17:00 local time, Chief of Coordination (Army, Navy, Air Force) General Thura Shweman and Mr. Jon Byong Ho, Secretary of WPK Central Committee, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea had a friendly meeting and exchanged views. Representatives from the two countries attended the meeting.
(f) At 18:00 local time, Mr. Jon Byong Ho entertained the group with a dinner, which was attended by all of the high-level Burmese military representatives led by the Chief of Coordination (Army, Navy, Air Force) General Thura Shweman. At the end of the dinner, the two countries exchanged gifts.
(a) At 08:50 local time, the group left Pyongyang Airport on Air Koryo JS 151 and arrived at Beijing International Airport at 09:30 China local time. At the Beijing International Airport, the group was welcomed by General Tin Jingon, Deputy Director General of Foreign Affairs Office (FAO), Burmese ambassador to China U Thein Lwin, Burmese military attache Colonel Tint Way and authorities concerned.
(b) At 12:00 local time, the group arrived at the Burmese embassy in Beijing. The leader of the Burmese military high-level representatives, Chief of Coordination (Army, Navy, Air Force) General Thura Shweman was welcomed by the families of the Burmese embassy staff and the military consulate, and in accordance with the Burmese tradition, the families paid homage to General Thura Shweman. After that, the group had the lunch provided by the Burmese ambassador.
(c) At 17:30 local time, the leader of the Burmese military high-level representatives, Chief of Coordination (Army, Navy, Air Force) General Thura Shweman had a friendly meeting with member of the central military commission, PLA chief of staff General Chen Bingde and exchanged views. Representatives from two countries attended the meeting.
(d) At 18:00 local time, Burmese military high-level representatives lead by chief of coordination (Army, Navy, Air Force) General Thura Shweman attended the dinner hosted by General Chen Bingde. At the end of the dinner, General Thura Shweman and General Chen Bingde exchanged gifts.
(a) At 08:30 local time, the group went on a tour to PLA No. 6 tank military base near Beijing and was welcomed by division commander Senior Colonel Chen Xuewu. Then Chief of Coordination (Army, Navy, Air Force) General Thura Shweman was welcomed with a salute by the PLA No. 6 tank military base parade troop, which was inspected by General Thura Shweman. The group then toured No. 6 tank military base’s barracks, tanks/ammunition, and observed exercises with simulators.
(b) At 12:00 local time, Chief of Coordination (Army, Navy, Air Force) General Thura Shweman met with Mr. Zaho Gang, Chairman of Norinco Company, at the Diaoyutai State Guest House, and the Chairman of the Norinco Company hosted the Burmese representatives with lunch.
(c) At 14.45 local time, at Poly Company, Beijing, Chief of Coordination (Army, Navy, Air Force) General Thura Shweman met with Mr. Kiang Lianxiang, Chairman of Poly Comapny who hosted the Burmese representatives with dinner.
(a) At 09:30 local time, in Ba Yi (August 1 Military Hall), Beijing, China, leader of the Burmese military high-level representatives, Chief of Coordination (Army, Navy, Air Force) General Thura Shweman had a friendly meeting with General Liang Guanglie, member of the central military and minister of defense, People’s Republic of China, and exchanged views. Burmese military high-level representatives and officials from Chinese military attended the meeting. At the end of the meeting, the two leaders exchanged gifts.
(b) At 14:25 local time, Burmese military high-level representatives led by Chief of Coordination (Army, Navy, Air Force) General Thura Shweman left for Kunming Airport from the Beijing International Airport on a CA-4170. At the Beijing International Airport, Chief of Coordination (Army, Navy, Air Force) General Thura Shweman was seen off by General Ding Jin Gong, PLA Deputy Chief (FAO) and officials.
(c) At 17:30 local time, the plane that carried Burmese military high-level representatives arrived at the Kuning Airport, and General Xu Tao Xing, Deputy Chief of Military Zone, Yunnan region and officials, and U Myo Tint, Burmese consular to China, came to welcome them. Then the group went on to Kai Wah Plaza, where they were staying.
(d) At 18:00 local time, at Kai Wah Plaza, where the representatives were staying, families of the staff at the Burmese consulate came to pay homage to Chief of Coordination (Army, Navy, Air Force) General Thura Shweman, who instructed these families.
(e) At 18:30 local time, in the dinner hall at Kai wah Plaza, where the representatives were staying, General Xu Tao xing hosted a dinner, which was attended by the leader of the Burmese military high-level representatives Chief of Coordination (Army, Navy, Air Force) General Thura Shweman and members. On the PLA side, General Xu Tao Xing
and PLA military officials. After the dinner, leaders of the two countries exchanged gifts.
(a) At 09:00 local time, Burmese military high-level representatives, led by Chief of Coordination (Army, Navy, Air Force) General Thura Shweman, went to Kunming Army Academy and were welcomed by the principal General Wong Shi Ping. Army Academy military parade unit welcomed General Shweman with a salute, and General Shweman inspected the military parade unit and toured the Army Academy.
(b) At 15.20 local time, Burmese military high-level representatives, led by Chief of Coordination (Army, Navy, Air Force) General Thura Shweman, left from the Kunming Airport on a special plane ATR-72. Before their departure, General Xu Tao Xing, deputy chief of military zone, Yunan region, came to see them off.
(c) The special plane ATR-72 with Burmese military high-level representatives, led by Chief of Coordination (Army, Navy, Air Force) General Thura Shweman, arrived at the Naypyidaw Airport at 16:10 Burma Standard Time.
Observations made on 11-23-2008 at the Model of Command Post
18. At the Model of Command Post, Director Mr. Jo Kong Mo explained in detail about the command control system, and Director Mr. Kong Myong explained in detailed about the national air defense command system (PLUTO-4S).
19. Command control system is described in Appendix (A) and the National Air Defense Command System (PLUTO-4S) is described in Appendix (B).
Observations made on 11-24-2008 at West Sea Barrage
20. At 7:30 on 11-24-2008, the representatives left the DPRK State Guest House and at 9:00 toured the place of a barrage with water control gates at the sea near DPRK’s west coast. Big ships are able to enter/depart that place. The authorities explained the following about the West Sea Barrage:
(a) length of the west sea barrage 8 Kilometers
(b) the number of gates at the barrage 3
(c) the weight of the ship that can enter from No. (1) gate 2000 tons
(d) the weight of the ship that can enter from No. (2) gate 50,000 tons
(e) the weight of the ship that can enter from No. (3) gate 30,000 tons
(f) the width of the car road on the barrage 30 feet
(g) the height of the Anchor Shape pillar 15 meters
(h) tide near the barrage 2 times
(i) the difference of the highest tide and lowest tide near the barrage (water level) 7 meters
20. Before the barrage, the tide would come right up to the coast, and when there were special tides in the sea, cities/villages, including Pyongyang, experienced flooding often. Furthermore, the west sea barrage was build in the cities and villages near the shore, for fresh water resources and for the prevention of natural disaster such as flooding when building industrial zones for the development of the region. In addition, that the site of the barrage, the lowest tide is over 20 feet. Therefore, the above-mentioned 50,000 ton ships can enter and unload and upload the goods in the still waters with no waves, and there is the special benefit of the fast flow of regional goods.
Observations made at a Naval Unit on 11-24-2008
11. At 10:30, the group went to a naval unit under the administration of the Nampo Naval Headquarters, which is the DPRK’s west coast fleet (yellow sea fleet). for an observation.
At the entrance of the naval base at the bay, water breakers were built from the bottom to the surface of the sea in concrete so that the base’s navy ships will not have to face the effects of the waves, the wind, and the weather. Big wharfs are built in the inner part of the bay, at the shore, and big and small ships were docked systematically. They weighed as much as 500 tons.
23. At that naval unit, a dock yard was built in order to repair the ships urgently, and fast, attack boats, small boats, and speed boats were docked there.
24. At that naval unit, a tunnel was built to store military ships safely and tunnel warfare is implemented. At 100 feet inside the tunnel, some military ships have been pulled inside through iron rails. The tunnels have been built systematically so that they can withstand missile attacks and the following is some of the information on the tunnels:
(a) length of the tunnel 600 meters
(b) height of the tunnel about 30 feet
(c) width of the tunnel about 30 feet
(d) the length- width-height of the movable concrete wall built in front of the entrance to withstand missiles about 30 – 3 – 30
(e) iron doors inside the tunnel 3 Appendix (E)
Plenary Meeting on 11-24-2008
25. At the Defense Ministry Meeting Hall, Pyongyang, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Burmese military high-level representatives, led by Chief of Coordination (Army, Navy, Air Force) General Thura Shweman and KPA representatives led by KPA Chief of General Staff, General Kim gyok Sik, had a friendly and open plenary meeting.
26. All the members from the Burmese military attended the plenary meeting.
27. The following are the members of the KPA who attended the plenary meeting:
(a) General Pak Jae Gyong, Vice Minister of the People’s Armed Forces.
(b) Lt. General son Sam Sul, Director of the military education.
(c) Maj. General An Yong Gi, Director of the military external affairs.
(d) Maj. General Kim Gwan Su, Deputy Commander of Air Force.
(e) Rear Admiral Ri In Su, Deputy Commander of Navy Force.
28. The discussion by Chief of Coordination (Army, Navy, Air Force) General Thura Shweman from the Burmese military is mentioned in Appendix (C) and the discussion from the KPA Chief of General Staff, General Kim Gyok Sik is mentioned in Appendix (D).
Observations on Aircraft Movement Control Post (in tunnel) on 11-25-2008
29. Real-time information on American aircrafts in South Korea detected through radars and can be seen readily on computerized display boards. By plotting on the display boards, women soldiers record the information. The commander can sit in front of the display board and closely give instructions. In the first room, there is a manual board as well as an auto board. In the second room, the information is recorded on 9 manual boards. All the control rooms are built in a tunnel. The rooms in the tunnel are built on each side of the turning paths. That unit is about 60 kilometers away from the 38 degree parallel. The radars can detect a target at the height of 1,000 meters from 124 kilometer distance and a target at the height of 3,000 meters from 167 meter distance. Tunnel building and assembling the machines were done only by the soldiers. There was no answer on the equipment used in tunnel building. That base was used during the 1950-53 Korean War. The leader Kim Il Sung turned it into the current modern one, which was finished in 1972. That base is connected to a village. The base has barbed wire fences, and there are ceramic balls between sections of the barbed wires. There can be electric current.
Observations made inside the Aircraft Hangar in Tunnel on 11-25-2008
30. At the air force airfield, there were Soviet made MIG 21 and MIG 19 aircrafts. Industrial soldiers and weapon soldiers were seen working near the aircrafts. On the side of the airplane runway, there were some hangars buried under the earth with grass on top. A regular aircraft maintenance hangar can be seen above the ground. The entrance of the tunnel that hides the aircrafts is covered by a net in order to hide it. The two doors of the tunnel are made of rocks, and they are mechanically opened and closed. The tunnel is 14 meters wide, 10 meters high and 600 meters long. Since the tunnel is 14×10 meters throughout, MIG 21 airplanes are parked there, and on the left and right are external tanks. The tunnel is not straight but curved left and right. There is a separate room for generators. In the central control room, targets in the airport control area detected by radar are recorded through plotting system. During a war, the commander can directly supervise from that room. In the tunnel, there are barracks for air force members and soldiers, with fully made beds. Inside there tunnel, there are two layers of iron doors that are mechanically opened and closed. The iron doors are as wide as the tunnel and can seal it. The tunnel can be closed by pulling up the door and opened by lowering it. The tunnel is wide enough to accommodate its fighter planes. Appendix (F)
Observations Made at Tank Unit Exercise on 11-25-2008
31. It is a demonstration of a simulator where tank commander, tank driver, tank gunner, one part of the North Korean military tank unit, can jointly exercise. The parts in the tank joint exercise simulator are produced in North Korea, and it is a combination of a Chon Ma tank, which is currently used by North Korean military, and a computer network. In the computer network, there are two computers, a projection speaker, a loud speaker, a sensor and an interface that connects the data.
32. The simulator puts sensors on the controls handled by the drivers and tank gunners and calculates the data sent to the computer and makes an output. It turns the data sent from the computer interface into electronic signals, and makes the hydraulic system below the floor where the tank is parked and simulates the height, angle, and turns that a tank would experience while driving on the real ground, along with the motions and the engine sounds.
33. At the same time, the movements of the dials and the views that the drivers have to watch are shown with a projector. If a tank gunner shoots at a target in the view, shown by a projector, and hits it, it simulates the sight and the sounds, and therefore, you feel as though it is really happening in a battlefield.
34. Furthermore, in the simulator, there are shoulder-launched Igla missiles, air-defense weapons on the tanks, so one can ride on a tank and shoot at the airplanes and helicopters in sight.
35. By using tank combined exercise, less oil and ammunitions will be used. There will be fewer incidents of vehicle malfunctioning and breaking, and fewer injuries. Also, trainers from the command room and trainees can assess whether the drivers has made a mistake or not, whether the control of the path has been good or not, the selection of the gear is correct or not. Similarly, it is an exercise aid which can train the gunners and air defense weapons to be effective.
Observations Made at the KPA Anti-Aircraft Unit on 11-26-2008
36. The entire radar system at the KPA Anti-Aircraft Unit has been buried under ground, and it has two doors on top. There is earth on those doors as well, camouflaged with plants in the area. When necessary, the door can be opened with a motor, and the radar system can be raised to get information. After that, the radar can be lowered and be covered again, and it will be camouflaged again.
37. Connected to the radar is a tunnel with four doors. One door is for missile trucks and for people to enter and exit. In each of the remaining three doors, there is a launching launcher that can launch four missiles at the same time and two vehicles that carry the missiles. They are closed inside by an iron door. When you want to launch a missile, the iron door can be opened using an electric motor, and the missile launcher will have to be taken outside the tunnel using the power from the motor. After that, the missile can be launched, closing the iron door again in order to shield from the fire that comes from the end of the missile.
38. Connect to it, there is one command control vehicle inside the tunnel. From that vehicle making assessments of the data received via the radar and giving orders to launch the missiles will be done. Appendix (G)
Observations made at the Special Army Unit on 11-26-2008
39. It is a unit over 100 forces strong and is similar to terrorist suppressing unit near Pyongyang. There were demonstrations of self defense in groups, gymnastics, fighting one on one or one fighting with more than one, skills in throwing knives, hammer, forks, axes, and hoes, breaking bricks and tiles, individual or group skills in shooting rifles and pistons.
Observations at Kim II Military University on 11-26-2008
40. It is a place where deputy colonels and high officials go for training. In the museum, attack vehicles, tanks, armored cars, cannons, launchers, small weapons, grenades, and missiles are on display. Trainees are seen exercising sand dune battles. In the room where the information on the enemy is kept, there are records of army, air force, and navy headquarters, main places of administrative support and communications, and big weapons. There is also a record of the deployment of the enemy American troops.
Observations Made at the KPA Women’s Unit on 11-26-2008
41. It is a women’s unit formed with trained (single) women from Pyongyang between the age of 18 and 26. The training period is 4 months, and the length of service is 6 years. Currently, there are over 80 in a unit. In that unit, there is a demonstration of practicing with six 14.5 mm machine guns to shoot aircrafts for women’s air defense. And then a group of 30 women entertain with music.
Observations made at the Anti-Aircraft Gun Ammunition Factory 11-27-2008
42. The anti-aircraft gun ammunition factory is built in the underground tunnel. The tunnel exists below 100 meters under a hill and is built so that it can get N.B.C. protections. The following anti-aircraft gun ammunitions are produced at the factory:
(a) 57 mm HE.T Shell
(b) 37 mm HE.T Shell
(c) 30 mm AA Shell
(d) In the pilot bullet factory are shell machine line, tool production line, press and forging shop, and cartridge production line.
Observations made at the Anti-Tank laser Beam Guidance Missile Factory on 11-27-2008
43. The factory is built in the underground tunnel. The factory was built from 1973 until 1976. The tunnel is built so that it gets NBC protection. At the start of the factory operation, optical products were produced, but later anti-tank missiles have been produced.
44. The anti-tank laser beam guidance missile is 120 millimeter in diameter and goes as far as 3,000 meters. Inside the tunnel are machines that produce components, and in the factories outside the tunnel are the gyro assembly factory, factory that produces printed circuit boards (PCB), and launcher testing areas. The group observed an anti-tank laser beam guidance missile successfully shooting a 2×2 meter target at 2,000 meter distance.
Observation Made at the Radar and Igla Missile Factory on 11-27-2008
45. The factory is built in the underground tunnel, with an NBC protection system. In the factory are modified Russian and Chinese search radars, ECM equipment, GPS jammers, and tunners [sic].
46. In the production line are radar and printed circuit boards (PCB) assembly lines and Igla missile parts.
Observations made at the Surface to Surface Missile Factory on 11-28-2008
47. It is located in a suburb in Pyongyang. It produces SCUD missiles. The component producing lines are kept in the underground tunnel. There are also above-ground factory where missile engines are assembled, where missile bodies are produced and assembled, and where complete missiles are assembled. In the factories that produce complete missiles, there are places that produce and assemble SCUD-D and SCUD-E. While SCUD-D can shoot a target up to 700 kilometers away, SCUD-E can shoot up to 1,500 kilometers, and SCUD-F can shoot up to 3,000 kilometers.
Observations on USS Pueblo on 11-28-2008
48. North Korea has captured USS Pueblo (AGER-2) from America and kept it near the shore by Pyongyang. In 1944, American navy built it in Kewaunee, Wisconsin, as a cargo ship (FP-344) for American army, and in 1966, it was given to the American navy and changed its name to USS Pueblo.
49. There is a video that explains its capture. In November of 1967, Pueblo left America to collect electronic intelligence data and for special missions. On January 5, 1968, it left Sasebo naval base in Japan and was attacked and captured by the regional units when it arrived at 15 miles away from North Korea’s east coat on January 23, 1968. In the attack by the North Korea, one soldier from the USS Pueblo died and 82 officers and soldiers were detained in North Korea for about a year and later released. The Americans said that they were only doing navigation research and collecting navigation data.
50. On the tour of the ship, there was a room with various communications machines, a room with tapes for recording, navigation towers where navigation control systems are kept, and the group observed the front, middle, and the rear parts of the ship. The ship has two big machines that use diesel engines, and the weight of the ship is 850 tons.
51. The USS Pueblo was on display in Wonsan and Hungham ports for about 30 years, and later it was moved to Taedong River in Pyongyang for exhibition.
Observations made at the PLA No. 6 Armored Division on 11-30-2008
52. No. 6 Armored Division is located in Nang Kou, about 40 kilometers away from north of Beijing, in Beijing military zone. The group arrived at the headquarters of the armored division at 08:40. The group was welcomed by No. 6 Armored Division, Division Commander Senior Colonel Cheng Xie Wu, along with his officers. He went on stage with General Thura Shweman to receive salute from the unit and the military band. After the inspection of the unit and after the marching parade and the salute by the unit, the Division Commander explained in the headquarters’ hall the following 5 parts about the history of the division:
(a) Organization and equipment
(b) Officers and soldiers
(c) Military training
(d) Logistic support
(e) Technical support.
53. No. 6 Armored Division was formed in 1968, under the supervision of Beijing military zone, and the main duty is for the safety of Beijing and to have military operations, and there are the following 5 battalions under the armored division:
(a) One armored battalion;
(b) One canon battalion;
(c) One air defense battalion.
54. Furthermore, in the armored division, there are other support and logistic units with over 8,000 forces. The armored division participated in the military parade with tanks on October 1, 1999.
55. It has the following mechanical weapons:
(a) Type 88 B tank;
(b) Type 89 armored personnel carrier;
(c) Type 89 122 mm self-propelled Howitzer;
(d) Type 88 37 mm twin-barrel and self-propelled gun;
(e) Type 89 122 mm self-propelled rocket launcher;
(f) Type 89 152 mm self-propelled Common-Howitzer.
56. The armored division has scout, communications, engineering, chemical defense, air defense, and logistic support units.
57. Officers and Soldier – Officers and soldiers are assigned duties according to the following:
(a) Officers – Officers are selected in 3 ways:
(1) Soldiers in the entire country who pass the officer cadet written exam attend become officers after attending officers training;
(2) Officers are selected from university graduates with a specialized degree;
(3) Other skilful soldiers with years of experience are selected.
(B) Other Level NCOs: After serving voluntarily with a two-year contract in the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), if a person wants to serve in the military, he can sign another contract and serve in other ranks. The person will be assigned duties in combat battalions only after enlisting as a volunteer soldier and attending a two-month training of basic military skills and continue on an eight-month training in units.
58. Military Training: A person has to practice 132 days out of a year and 8 hours a day. In the annual military practice, the following are done:
(a) Enlistment training
(b) Professional training
(c) Unit training
(d) Combined tactics training.
59. Logistic Support: There are logistic support units for the armored division. Filling oil while tanks and armored vehicles are running, providing weapons and medicine, laying out the barracks, cooking and feeding with a vehicle that provides food, practicing with military tents were explained, using a projector.
60. Technical Support: There is a repair battalion in the armored division that does medium level repairs and emergency repairs at the battlefields. Similarly, in the subordinate battalions, there is a factory that does minor repairs and changing materials, and for emergency repairs. Maintenance groups inspect arms and ammunitions to see if they should really be used and to have them ready for use. The armored division is always working to be ready for a battle, and currently in accordance with PLA’s good tradition, performance improvement and modernization are done.
61. After the explanation by the armored division commander, questions were taken, and General Hla Myint asked about how training was done for basic armored skills such as driving, gunning, and communications. The armored division commander explained that after the 2-month basic military training, there is an eight-month training for unit skills, and only after becoming skilful in basic subjects are they sent to battalions for service, and they still have to be trained again according to the duties assigned in the battalions, and there are also joint trainings. Regarding officers training, while there is training for officers depending on their duties, there are also joint trainings. Deputy Colonel Myint Hlaing asked about using simulators to train gunning from the tanks. It was explained that No. 6 armored division was trying to provide simulators to practice these things, and now up to 40 percent of training can be done with simulators, and at No. 21 armored division, that the group was going next, the use of simulators for practice would be demonstrated, and the group went to No 21 armored division in cars.
62. At No. 21 Armored Division, Armored Division Commander Colonel Xu Le welcomed the group and showed the use of simulators for practice at the armored division. With the use of simulators, commanders and gunners in each vehicle can contact each other and give commands, and gunners can aim and gun the enemy’s tanks, and practice the work done in battleground by battalions, companies, and platoons. On the maps at the supervision armored vehicles, you can view the enemies and your own unit’s layout using computers, and with the use of projectors, that view can be displayed for others to see and assess if the actions taken are correct.
63. Then the group went to a barrack of a company at the armored division. The barrack was a three-storied building. A room houses sixteen officers and soldiers, and there are two rooms for a platoon. Each soldier has a bed and a cupboard. There are company meeting halls, classrooms, recreation rooms, and study rooms. There are also rooms where people can iron their clothes and have their hair cut. There are also exercise equipment and ping pong and billiard tables. In that company, there are a total of 103 officers and soldiers.
64. In the platoon, there are the following six vehicles displayed:
(a) One type 88 B tank;
(b) One type 89 armored 122 mm self-propelled Howitzer;
(c) One type 89 APC;
(d) One type 89 152 mm self-propelled common-Howitzer;
(e) One type 89 37 mm twin-barrel;
(f) One type 89 122 mm self-propelled rocket launcher.
65. After the tour of the vehicles, Chief of Coordination (Army, Navy, Air Force) General Thura Shweman gave presents to the armored division commander and left the division.
Engineering Findings from the Observations in Democratic People’s Republic of the Korea and People’s Republic of China
66. Buildings: The building design, the electrical wiring, and the air conditioning are good at the hall where DPRK’s leader’s body is kept. There are big wooden doors along the path leading to the place where the body is kept. The hallways are wide and have high ceilings. There are stone stairs. Especially, the building has been designed so that the body can be shone spotlights from various places with light control. Many medals and certificates sent to the leader Kim Il Sung from various countries are on display. The body that has not decomposed, the grand building, and unusual power supply system controlling the lighting, and systematic and neat air-conditioning system are unusual.
67. Factories and Stores: The group toured weapon factories, communications command post buildings, and tunnels where naval ships and air force fighter planes and found that the size of the tunnels, the thickness of the defensive layer on the building, the system of cover, building technology, power supply systems and ventilation systems differ, depending on the purpose and depending on the size of the vehicles.
68. Underground Metro in Capital Pyongyang of DPRK
(a) For the underground metro in Pyongyang, DPRK, the current sent to the underground train has 825 volts, and 10,000 volts will be sent to underground electric stations through high voltage transmission line. 10/0.825 KV (dry type) transformer will be used to reduce the voltage used for the underground train. About 4 mw will be used in an underground train station, for lighting system, power supply and escalators as well.
(b) The length of the two underground railway lines in Pyongyang is 45 kilometers, with 100 train stations. The underground trains do not go up the ground inside the city, except for major repairs. For good ventilation, not only natural ventilation from the speed of the train, but also there is one ventilation fan in every 500 meters. There is a cable system for underground communications between stations, or as main communications center, or for external telecommunications system.
(c) There is only fire detecting system with no automatic fire fighting system to extinguish accidental fires. For security, CCTV watching cameras system is not used.
100 percent. Traffic control is not too complicated because there are only two lines for Pyongyang underground trains, and they pass only in one place (on the map). Before the two lines pass each other, there are sub-communications centers at the stations on each side of the underground lines, which can be connected to the main communications center and the above-ground main communications networks. Entrances to the 17 stations and some ventilation holes are connected with underground lines, but there is not a protection system in case of a war with nuclear, biological and chemical weapon attacks.
(d) The average distance between each underground station is 1.5 to 2 kilometers. The distance between two underground railways is the same as above-ground, and it is 1.432 meters. Connecting the above-ground and under-ground railways depends on the size of the width of the railways and the size of the carriage. The carriages are 15 meters long, 3.5 meters high and 2.5 meters wide, and ordinarily, 150 people fit in each carriage. There are four carriages in a train, and so about 600 people can ride in a trip. At the highest speed, the train can go 80 kilometers per hour. The underground trains run from 6 am until 10 pm, and inspections of the train and railways are done everyday.
(c) For the underground railway, both hydro- and thermal power sources are used anytime without any power outage. The group was told that selection of the railway route according to the map and topography, formation of the construction teams, the materials used, the length of time and the cost of construction would be explained in detail.
69. Underground Metro in Capital Beijing of China
(a) In China’s underground railway system, there are a total of 8 lines, with a 123 stations. The length of the railway is 198.6 kilometers. The line numbers are 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10 and 13. Line numbers 8 and 10 were opened on July 19, 2008, and the total cost for line number 10 is 13.7 billion yuans. Lines number 7 and 14 are still under construction and are estimated to be finished by the end of 2008. The budget for 2012 is additional 240 billion yuans. It is estimated that by 2015, there will be a total of 19 underground railway lines, with the length of 561 kilometers.
(b) The differences between the underground railways in the two countries are the affordability and technology. It is advised to keep those things in mind according to one’s needs when drawing up long-term projects.
70. Comparisons of underground railways: Information on underground railways in Pyongyang, North Korea, and Beijing, China are as following:
|(Pyongyang) North Korea||(Beijing) China|
|Population||over 6 million||estimated 15 million|
|Depth underground||average 100 meters||average 30 meters|
|Number of lines||2 lines||8 lines|
|Number of stations||17 stations||123 stations|
|Total length||45 kilometers||198.6 kilometers|
|Ventilation system||One fan per 500 meters||–|
|Traffic control system||Individual for each station
and main control center
|Fire fighting system||None||Exists|
|CCTV Watching System||None||Exists|
71. Analysis of the MoU of the military joint projects that would benefit Burmese military and KPA
(a) The military of the two countries will have to conduct joint military training and practice. The Burmese military proposes to have priority in training for special unit, military security, for tunnel inspections, air defense, and language learning of the two countries.
(b) The military of the two countries will provide aid and have joint efforts in building tunnels to keep air planes and ships and other military buildings and underground buildings. The military of the two countries will have joint efforts in modernizing weapons and military equipment and exchange experiences. Therefore, it is believed that the Burmese military high-level representatives took was successful.
72. Naval Analysis
(a) The group observed “Coast Guard with 2500 ton” [sic] ship built and sold by Nam Po Ship Design and Institute Office, same size as the size of the ship being built in our country. That naval ship is 108 meters long, 13.3 meters wide, and 8.2 meters deep and has the following integrated weapon systems:
(1) Information collection unit
(2) Command and control system
(3) Anti-ship missile system
(4) Artillery weapon system
(4.1) 76 mm cheal [sic] purpose boat automatic gun weapon system.
(4.2) 30 mm 6 barrel boat automatic anti-aircraft gun system
(4.3) 14.5 mm 6 barrel anti-aircraft gun system
(5) Under-water weapon system
(5.1) 533 mm torpedo
(5.2) 252 mm depth charge rocket system
(5.3) Large depth charge and mine
(6) Electric Warfare weapon system (82 mm decoy launcher)
(b) Weapons on the ship made in DPRK include various modern weapons and weapon systems that can shoot naval enemy, water surface enemy, under water enemy, and some need to turn into more effective weapons and missiles. Poly Company is making them.
(c) In China, the group had the opportunity to observe a frigate. It was a 103.32-meter long, missile frigate type 053H1, and therefore, it is not too different from the frigate Burma is building, and it weighs only 1960 tons. The weapons on that type 053H1 are as follows:
(1) Two dual barrel 100 mm main gun;
(2) Four dual barrel 37 mm AA gun;
(3) 5 barrel 250 mm anti-submarine rocket launcher;
(4) SY-1 SSMs missile;
(5) Command and control system;
(6) Electronic warfare weapon system (923-1 decoy launcher).
(d) Compared to the frigate naval ship built in Burma, that ship will have C802 SSM (120) km, as an update to the SY-1 missile. Their frigate is smaller and lighter than ours, and it has no torpedo weapons that can destroy above- and under-water enemies, and therefore, the weapons need to be updated to be modern.
(e) Materials for the C801 A missile and director that we are currently using were bought in 1994, and there are some defects, and therefore, we enquired about purchasing some spare parts. The production term has been completed, and spare parts and no longer produced. In order to repair those materials, this matter will be presented to the military research and technology development committee, and if it can make them, we will substitute them for use.
(f) This trip is to gather information on updating old ships in the navy, modernizing the navy, and purchasing new naval ships, and therefore, it benefits the navy.
73. Analysis on Air Force
(a) Hangars in air force headquarters and air force units are only built above the ground, and therefore, can be destroyed when seen and attacked or bombed. In Namsam, Mergui, and Dada-Oo regions, some hangars have been built on hillsides, and therefore, they can be attacked only on the front side, while other sides will be protected by the sides of the hills. However, they can still be destroyed by bomb attacks.
(b) Usually, similar helicopters are kept in a hangar, and therefore, if the hangar is destroyed, the helicopters and planes there can also be destroyed.
(c) Therefore, placing hard shields on the hangars or placing planes in separate hangars can be done. GBU-28 laser banker destroyer bomb, made in America, can penetrate up to 30 meters.
(d) Even though it costs a lot of money to keep air planes in tunnels, it is the most secure.
(e) In the country where the group toured, MIG-21 fighter planes were kept in tunnels that were 14 meters long and 10 meters high. MIG-21 (similar in design to F-7, produced in China) fighting aircraft is 7.1 meter long and 4 meters high. On the sides of the tunnel were extra oil tanks (drop tanks) were placed, and there was enough space.
(f) MIG-29 fighter planes in the air force are 11.3 meters long and 4.7 meters high. A-5 fighter planes are 9.7 meters long and 4.5 meters high.
(g) In order to trick the enemies, we need to place decoy airplanes and helicopters and hangars.
74. Analysis on Air Defense Unit
(a) The Korean People’s Army in DPRK is 24 ready to face intrusion and destroy air attacks by America’s troops strongly bases in South Korea, connected to its territory.
(b) Short range Igla missiles, 107 mm MRLS, 240 mm MRLS weapon system, medium range Volga and Pechora weapon systems are placed underground bunkers, ready for a battle. Air-parting missiles of the 107 mm MRLS, 122 mm MRLS, 240 mm MRLS weapon systems are used, and they are effective for carpet fire enemy planes.
(c) Expecting enemies that can enter along the border as well as from the sea of the Korean peninsular, there are radars that can detect low altitude, medium altitude, and above 10,000 high altitude targets and give warning, and they are ready to destroy the enemies simultaneously. We should copy their modernity.
(d) Command headquarters, weapon systems, and radar systems are all underground, and so are the troops in a ready position 24 hours.
(e) The camouflage of the air defense units and the underground bunker systems are very effective.
(f) There is an integrated air defense system that integrates ground based air defense unit and the role of the air force.
(g) As people’s military strategy, women soldiers and civilian women who are of age are also trained for battle in the air defense unit.
(h) Burmese military should emulate KPA’s air defense battle skills, and the two military should have joint efforts to improve weapons and the quality of the military.
(i) The two military should have joint efforts in tactical training, including theoretical training and technical training, and improve the quality of our air force defense unit and the readiness for battles.
75. Analysis on the anti-tank laser beam guidance missile factory: In Burmese military infantry, there are non-guidance RPG and RCL launchers that destroy tanks. Anti-tank laser beam guidance missiles weigh only 26 kilograms, and 3 soldiers can carry four missiles and use it. Therefore, infantries can use guidance missiles and destroy the enemy’s armored vehicles and tanks that are up to 3,000 meters away. Since laser guidance system is used, it is difficult for the enemy to detect it and destroy the guidance system. The anti-tank laser beam guidance missile can be placed on the vehicle, and along with the armored divisions, it can be used in infantry and tank joint operations.
76. Analysis on radar and Igla missile factory: Jammers produced by the factory are very useful for non-lethal and electronic warfare. There can be passive defense with those jammers. Radars and jammers are going to be very useful for modern warfare, and we need to continue to produce them step by step.
77. Analysis on surface to surface missile factory: SCUD-D and SCUD-F are strategic missiles that can shoot 700 kilometers and 3,000 kilometers. Therefore, at an appropriate time, we should continue to produce these strategic weapons step by step.
78. Analysis on armored division
(a) According to the extent of the observations made in the training in North Korean military’s armored division and People’s Army of China’s armored division, in the simulator created and produced in North Korea, there are two computers connected to the current tanks. In the simulator training in People’s Army of China, everyone from all different ranks, officers and soldiers, in the division can be trained at the same time using the simulators. The simulator used by the North Korean Army is given special attention to individual tanks, and the basic subjects of driving the tank and gunning are emphasized. People’s Army of China is able to conduct operation training for officers and combat vehicles, and therefore, has given special attention to joint training of the officers who are already skilful in basic level.
(b) In unit training to modernize the armored division, the tank driver simulator and tank gunnery simulator, made in China, that were bought in 1991, were used in cannon and armored vehicle training school, but they can be used now only after repairs. Only the simulator bought from Ukraine is used in 5001 tank battalion in Meittila, and therefore, we are not yet able to train with simulators in the armored vehicle school. Simulators are used up to the level of armored operation supervision headquarters. In our current situation, we need to give priority to simulators in the armored vehicle training schools.
(c) As a first step, we need to obtain the technical knowledge of the simulator made in North America which can be used to practice basic skills for the armored soldiers in the armored vehicle training school such as vehicle driving and gunning and to produce them ourselves. At the same time, for joint exercise at the officer level, we need to study the simulators used in China, and as a second step, we need to produce them. Currently, we are building a workshop to repair armored vehicles, and it will be good if we can share technology and produce them when the workshop is finished.
79. Analysis on Radar (KPA)
(a) Search Radar: A big radar system previously produced by China in 1960 and a modern radar system were shown. The radar system has changed from analog to digital system, and a computer system is also used. It can be used from 120 meters to 180 meters.
(b) AWACS Jammer: There are six jammers, and they can be placed in 7 kilometers away. The jammers can jam the enemy’s AWACS detections. It can rotate 60 degrees left and right, at 5 degree angle.
(c) GPS Jammer: There are two small jammers that can destroy the enemy’s movement and target directions when the enemy uses GPS. It can jam up to 300 kilometers.
80. Analysis on Jamming Machines
(a) Searching Radar: There is improvement on technology. However, we need to compare it to the searching radars from other developed countries and study. Since it is an active system, we should use it in combination with other decoys.
(b) AWACS Jammer: It should be used in our country in border area and coastal area where the enemy can use AWACS airplanes and attack us. It should be used together with the air defense unit, in combination with our command and control system. Since it is a jammer, we should use it with decoys.
(c) GPS Jammer: When preparing for a war with the enemy, it is a jammer which should be used mobile. We need to prepare and calculate ahead of time to be able to jam in the defined area. Using decoys, we need to be able to avoid the enemy’s response attacks.
81. Engineering analysis
(a) Defense material factories, air force planes, naval ships, radars in a unit of an air defense system, vehicles with missiles and missile launchers are all kept in tunnels and camouflaged. Our military should also plan to gradually place the important military targets in tunnels. When doing so, we have to dig command post tunnels, and we have similar nature and ideology with them. Therefore, we can do it with the machines we have (Jumbo machine, Road Header, and so on) and with the trained officers and soldiers. Depending on the amount of work, we will have to buy additional machines.
(b) In the current situation, it will be difficult to build underground railways with the type of machines we have and with our human resources. As a first step, we should start to train our officers and soldiers with foreign technicians, collect detail surface and underground information and calculate and draw up designs in detail, buy necessary machines, and make them practice so that they will gain experience and techniques up to a certain extent. As a second step, the amount of electricity, the important ventilation and air-conditioning systems, security systems, preparation for emergency situations, building carriages and their capacities, and the space are all different. Basically, DPRK has it built in average 100-meter depth, while in Beijing, the underground railways are built in approximately 30 meters deepest. When building deep under the ground, there can be difficulties such s the cost getting higher, building technology getting more complicated, and facing difficulties with underground water and earth layers. However, there are benefits such as we do not need to think about buildings above the ground and the city systems. If there is an emergency war, we will be able to save the lives of many people and be able to use the militias and tunnel warfare effectively. Building shallow underground with an opening method, there are underground electricity distribution systems, water distribution systems, and historic buildings that might need to be removed. It is difficult to build a straight path and surface and underground systems can get mixed up. Also, it can only be used as an ordinary shelter in time of emergency. Therefore, after obtaining experience and technology to asses how these two ways are useful for multipurpose in our country, depending on the topology, composition of the earth layers, the number of rivers and stream, we should have our own plan to have long-term projects and work on it gradually. Furthermore, we should consider the amount of electricity for the underground train, the escalators to be used in train stations, and enough and constant power for ventilation equipment and lighting system and other systems.